the neanderthal in you

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Marsoups
Posts: 1368
Joined: Fri Dec 28, 2001 3:57 pm


Neanderthal genes 'survive in us'

Neanderthal genes 'survive in us'

By Paul Rincon
Science reporter, BBC News

Many people alive today possess some Neanderthal ancestry, according to a landmark scientific study.

The finding has surprised many experts, as previous genetic evidence suggested the Neanderthals made little or no contribution to our inheritance.

The result comes from analysis of the Neanderthal genome - the "instruction manual" describing how these ancient humans were put together.

The genomes of 1% to 4% of people in Eurasia come from Neanderthals.

But the study confirms living humans overwhelmingly trace their ancestry to a small population of Africans who later spread out across the world.
“ [Neanderthals] are not totally extinct, in some of us they live on - a little bit ”
Professor Svante Paabo Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

The most widely-accepted theory of modern human origins - known as Out of Africa - holds that the ancestors of living humans ( Homo sapiens ) originated in Africa some 200,000 years ago.

A relatively small group of people then left the continent to populate the rest of the world between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago.

While the Neanderthal genetic contribution - found in people from Europe, Asia and Oceania - appears to be small, this figure is higher than previous genetic analyses have suggested.

"They are not totally extinct. In some of us they live on, a little bit," said Professor Svante Paabo, from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.

Professor Chris Stringer, research leader in human origins at London's Natural History Museum, is one of the architects of the Out of Africa theory. He told BBC News: "In some ways [the study] confirms what we already knew, in that the Neanderthals look like a separate line.

"But, of course, the really surprising thing for many of us is the implication that there has been some interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans in the past."

John Hawks, assistant professor of anthropology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the US, told BBC News: "They're us. We're them.

"It seemed like it was likely to be possible, but I am surprised by the amount. I really was not expecting it to be as high as 4%," he said of the genetic contribution from Neanderthals.

The sequencing of the Neanderthal genome is a landmark scientific achievement, the product of a four-year-long effort led from Germany's Max Planck Institute but involving many other universities around the world.

The project makes use of efficient "high-throughput" technology which allows many genetic sequences to be processed at the same time.

The draft Neanderthal sequence contains DNA extracted from the bones of three different Neanderthals found at Vindija Cave in Croatia.

Retrieving good quality genetic material from remains tens of thousands of years old presented many hurdles which had to be overcome.

The samples almost always contained only a small amount of Neanderthal DNA amid vast quantities of DNA from bacteria and fungi that colonised the remains after death.

The Neanderthal DNA itself had broken down into very short segments and had changed chemically. Luckily, the chemical changes were of a regular nature, allowing the researchers to write software that corrected for them.

Writing in Science journal, the researchers describe how they compared this draft sequence with the genomes of modern people from around the globe.

"The comparison of these two genetic sequences enables us to find out where our genome differs from that of our closest relative," said Professor Paabo.
“ Those things that made the Neanderthals apparent to us as a population - those things didn't work ”
Dr John Hawks University of Wisconsin-Madison

The results show that the genomes of non-Africans (from Europe, China and New Guinea) are closer to the Neanderthal sequence than are those from Africa.

The most likely explanation, say the researchers, is that there was limited mating, or "gene flow", between Neanderthals and the ancestors of present-day Eurasians.

This must have taken place just as people were leaving Africa, while they were still part of one pioneering population. This mixing could have taken place either in North Africa, the Levant or the Arabian Peninsula, say the researchers.

The Out of Africa theory contends that modern humans replaced local "archaic" populations like the Neanderthals.

But there are several variations on this idea. The most conservative model proposes that this replacement took place with no interbreeding between modern humans and Neanderthals.

Unique features

Another version allows for a degree of assimilation, or absorption, of other human types into the Homo sapiens gene pool.

The latest research strongly supports the Out of Africa theory, but it falsifies the most conservative version of events.

The team also identified more than 70 gene changes that were unique to modern humans. These genes are implicated in physiology, the development of the brain, skin and bone.

The researchers also looked for signs of "selective sweeps" - strong natural selection acting to boost traits in modern humans. They found 212 regions where positive selection may have been taking place.

The scientists are interested in discovering genes that distinguish modern humans from Neanderthals because they may have given our evolutionary line certain advantages over the course of evolution.

The most obvious differences were in physique: the muscular, stocky frames of Neanderthals contrast sharply with those of our ancestors. But it is likely there were also more subtle differences, in behaviour, for example.

Dr Hawks commented that the amount of Neanderthal DNA in our genomes seemed high: "What it means is that any traits [Neanderthals] had that might have been useful in later populations should still be here.

"So when we see that their anatomies are gone, this isn't just chance. Those things that made the Neanderthals apparent to us as a population - those things didn't work. They're gone because they didn't work in the context of our population."

Researchers had previously thought Europe was the region where Neanderthals and modern humans were most likely to have exchanged genes. The two human types overlapped here for some 10,000 years.

The authors of the paper in Science do not rule out some interbreeding in Europe, but say it was not possible to detect this with present scientific methods.


http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8660940.stm
venatrix
Posts: 2795
Joined: Tue Nov 28, 2006 2:43 pm


Marsoups wrote :
Retrieving good quality genetic material from remains tens of thousands of years old presented many hurdles which had to be overcome.

The samples almost always contained only a small amount of Neanderthal DNA amid vast quantities of DNA from bacteria and fungi that colonised the remains after death.

The Neanderthal DNA itself had broken down into very short segments and had changed chemically. Luckily, the chemical changes were of a regular nature, allowing the researchers to write software that corrected for them.


That is fucking excellent!
kayhat
Posts: 774
Joined: Sun Mar 20, 2005 11:40 am


Anything that has inneuendo to spell checkers would be. :P
venatrix
Posts: 2795
Joined: Tue Nov 28, 2006 2:43 pm


No dude.

Researchers writing software to correct chemical changes in dna from a Neanderthal skeleton is fucking cool.
ionized
Posts: 1474
Joined: Tue Sep 20, 2005 4:20 pm


The code sequencing of biology meets the code sequencing of computer science (eg=c). Yes, very interesting.

But can computer coded molecules in virtual space be used to sequence molecules in real space? I wonder....

We really have no idea what in happening in labs around the world... *sigh*
itchytriggerniggerfingers
Posts: 2288
Joined: Wed May 17, 2006 9:39 pm


ionized wrote :

We really have no idea what in happening in labs around the world... *sigh*



Cell Division
kayhat
Posts: 774
Joined: Sun Mar 20, 2005 11:40 am


venatrix wrote :
No dude.

Researchers writing software to correct chemical changes in dna from a Neanderthal skeleton is fucking cool.


So are freaking spell checkers, aren't they?! They save the english language, just like you! :mrgreen:
Marsoups
Posts: 1368
Joined: Fri Dec 28, 2001 3:57 pm


You would change the topic to freakin' spell checkers, wouldn't you, Kayhat :P :roll: :lol:
kayhat
Posts: 774
Joined: Sun Mar 20, 2005 11:40 am


We gotta remind ourselves of where the magics at :mrgreen:
solconnection
Posts: 1105
Joined: Sat Nov 16, 2002 7:08 pm


ionized wrote :
The code sequencing of biology meets the code sequencing of computer science (eg=c). Yes, very interesting.

But can computer coded molecules in virtual space be used to sequence molecules in real space? I wonder....

We really have no idea what in happening in labs around the world... *sigh*


yep, in a way, check it oot
http://www.ted.com/talks/paul_rothemund ... lding.html
spangk
Posts: 2816
Joined: Wed Jul 31, 2002 4:09 am


This is all so interesting, I want to be tested too.
Marsoups
Posts: 1368
Joined: Fri Dec 28, 2001 3:57 pm


More on the neanderthal connection here :
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn1 ... umans.html

I just want to meet a neanderthal now.. I read somewhere recently that they worked out that Neanderthal possibly had blonde hair, where quite gentle and are not at all related to the stigma attached to when one calls somebody a 'neanderthal'.

I find it very interesting , though, to think like 50 000 years ago us humans where living side by side with this other 'group' of similar beings, but obviously they where thought of as a 'lesser species'. Whether they co-operated or maybe picked things up from this species, such as tool making and suchlike, remains a mystery but we're gaining so much knowledge on that it's amazing. How well where the neanderthals able to communicate ? Where they a lot hairier than humans ?

What seperated us from the Neanderthals ? Could one compare the difference between neanderthals and us to different races on the planet, branching out over a period of 20 000 years ?

Did the humans initially decide to cooperate with the neanderthals, then perhaps they did something humans didn't like and then it was a war between the funny looking 'humans' and humans themselves ? This could make for a great story..
herbsandspices
Posts: 794
Joined: Mon Mar 08, 2004 1:21 pm


There is (from memory) some evidence that neanderthals burried their dead, and pollen in the grave may indicate that they put flowers in with the body, perhaps suggesting perhaps spirituality, and their brains were larger than ours from memory too.

Really interesting.
itchytriggerniggerfingers
Posts: 2288
Joined: Wed May 17, 2006 9:39 pm


Marsoups wrote :
I just want to meet a neanderthal now..



Just PM Kayhat, I'm sure he will be glad to talk to a modern man :idea:
venatrix
Posts: 2795
Joined: Tue Nov 28, 2006 2:43 pm


https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/lan/en/index.html

STEP 1: TEST
Once you have purchased your own Genographic Project Public Participation Kit, you can begin the exploration into your deep ancestry. The first step involves a painless cheek swab to acquire a DNA sample. Once you have completed the cheek swabbing process, you will secure the swabs inside the transport tubes and mail the tubes off to the lab using the supplied envelope. It's that simple, and guaranteed anonymous.

STEP 2: TRACK
The exploration continues here in the Genographic Project Web site where you can track your test kit, step by step, through the various stages of DNA sequencing and processing. Along the way, multimedia presentations explain how scientists actually decode the information found in the molecules of your DNA.

STEP 3: EXPLORE
When your results are ready Project Director Dr. Spencer Wells will introduce you to your earliest human relatives—the members of your specific haplogroup. You'll receive a personalized genetic analysis, including an online overview of your deep ancestral history. The analysis reveals where and when your haplogroup originated and how they lived. You'll also receive a dynamic map, specific to your lineage, on which to trace your relatives' journeys across the planet.

Your haplogroup's story may evolve as the Genographic Project collects thousands of DNA samples during the next few years. When it does, tantalizing new chapters will be added to this Web site and your information will be updated.

The entire online process is completely anonymous so no one, including project scientists, will ever be able to access your results. But, if you choose, you can share them. A printable, hi-resolution certificate of participation, map, and haplogroup overview serve as compelling documentation of your deep ancestry.

The Genographic Project is an exciting exploration of your personal genetic background. But it also has a broader mission. If you choose to anonymously contribute your genetic results to the project database you'll participate on a global scale—and help further define the vast scope of the human genetic journey.
Pete_Paranoid
Posts: 2332
Joined: Tue Jun 17, 2003 2:45 am


Don't ask...

Men rate sex higher than looks
August 13, 2009

Women are far more choosy about casual sex than men, who don't specially care whether a woman is moderately or exceptionally attractive as long as she hops into bed.

But German men are pickier than Americans and Italians - in that order - about who they spend a night in bed with, according to psychological research from Britain's Brunel University published in the journal Human Nature.

The study asked more than 400 male and 400 female students in the US, Germany and Italy to judge the role played by physical attractiveness in their willingness to go out with someone, go to their flat, or go to bed with them.

Women were more likely to go to a man's flat or agree to go to bed if he was exceptionally attractive.

"While men are not entirely insensitive to their requestor's attractiveness, women have higher standards," the authors concluded.

AFP

http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/lifematters/men-rate-sex-higher-than-looks-20090813-eizv.html
kayhat
Posts: 774
Joined: Sun Mar 20, 2005 11:40 am


itchytriggerniggerfingers wrote :
Marsoups wrote :
I just want to meet a neanderthal now..



Just PM Kayhat, I'm sure he will be glad to talk to a modern man :idea:


Stop defaming me, you know how tender us caveman types can be, especially when people dis us and we happen to be out with a club in our hands and see your monkey ass. 8)
itchytriggerniggerfingers
Posts: 2288
Joined: Wed May 17, 2006 9:39 pm


kayhat
Posts: 774
Joined: Sun Mar 20, 2005 11:40 am


Any neanderthal can embed a youtube clip to synthesise some form of opinion. Just check out pete paranoid, he's doing alright! :lol:
itchytriggerniggerfingers
Posts: 2288
Joined: Wed May 17, 2006 9:39 pm


Obviously the message contained within said youtube clip was completely lost on you.
kayhat
Posts: 774
Joined: Sun Mar 20, 2005 11:40 am


What makes you think I'm going to use my precious bandwidth to extend your lame insults? :lol:
venatrix
Posts: 2795
Joined: Tue Nov 28, 2006 2:43 pm


kayhat wrote :
What makes you think I'm going to use my precious bandwidth to extend your lame insults? :lol:


Lol! Get better internets 8)
itchytriggerniggerfingers
Posts: 2288
Joined: Wed May 17, 2006 9:39 pm


kayhat wrote :
What makes you think I'm going to use my precious bandwidth to extend your lame insults? :lol:



Youtube video was not an insult, but related to the thread at hand. Besides, its only 3 and a half minutes of the 2nd best comedian of all time. Carlin at his best - worthwhile viewing for all!


Oh yeah, get better internets :lol:
kayhat
Posts: 774
Joined: Sun Mar 20, 2005 11:40 am


itchytriggerniggerfingers wrote :
Youtube video was not an insult, but related to the thread at hand. Besides, its only 3 and a half minutes of the 2nd best comedian of all time. Carlin at his best - worthwhile viewing for all!


OK, not lame insult, just plain lame :mrgreen:

venatrix wrote :
kayhat wrote :
What makes you think I'm going to use my precious bandwidth to extend your lame insults? :lol:


Lol! Get better internets 8)


Well mm, I suppose that (^^) proves that you can be lame with as little bandwidth as possible ;)
venatrix
Posts: 2795
Joined: Tue Nov 28, 2006 2:43 pm


kayhat wrote :
Well mm, I suppose that (^^) proves that you can be lame with as little bandwidth as possible ;)


Fast internets is lame? Did you suddenly get a new job working at the Department of Broadband, Communications, and the Digital Economy? :lol:
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